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From Middle English and, an, from Old English and, ond, end, from Proto-Germanic *andi, *anþi, from Proto-Indo-European *h?énti (“facing opposite, near, in front of, before”). Cognate with Scots an (“and”), North Frisian en (“and”), West Frisian en, in (“and”), Low German un (“and”), Dutch en (“and”), German und (“and”), Danish end (“but”), Swedish än (“yet, but”), Icelandic enn (“still, yet”), Albanian edhe (“and”) (dialectal ênde, ênne), ende (“still, yet, therefore”), Latin ante (“opposite, in front of”), and Ancient Greek ???? (antí, “opposite, facing”).
- As a coordinating conjunction; expressing two elements to be taken together or in addition to each other.
- Used simply to connect two noun phrases, adjectives or adverbs. [from 8 c.]
- Simply connecting two clauses or sentences. [from 8 c.]
- Introducing a clause or sentence which follows on in time or consequence from the first. [from 9 c.]
- (obsolete) Yet; but. [10-17 c.]
- Used to connect certain numbers: connecting units when they precede tens (not dated); connecting tens and units to hundreds, thousands etc. (now often omitted in US); to connect fractions to wholes. [from 10 c.]
- (now colloquial or literary) Used to connect more than two elements together in a chain, sometimes to stress the number of elements.
- Connecting two identical elements, with implications of continued or infinite repetition. [from 10 c.]
- Introducing a parenthetical or explanatory clause. [from 10 c.]
- Introducing the continuation of narration from a previous understood point; also used alone as a question: ‘and so what?’.
- (now regional or somewhat colloquial) Used to connect two verbs where the second is dependent on the first: ‘to’. Used especially after come, go and try. [from 14 c.]
- Introducing a qualitative difference between things having the same name; "as well as other". [from 16 c.]
- Used to combine numbers in addition; plus (with singular or plural verb). [from 17 c.]
- (heading) Expressing a condition.
- (now US dialectal) If; provided that. [from 13 c.]
- (obsolete) As if, as though. [15-17 c.]
and (plural ands)
From Middle English ande, from Old English anda (“grudge, enmity, malice, envy, hatred, anger, zeal, annoyance, vexation; zeal; injury, mischief; fear, horror”) and Old Norse andi (“breath, wind, spirit”); both from Proto-Germanic *anadô (“breath, anger, zeal”), from Proto-Indo-European *h?enh?- (“to breathe, blow”). Cognate with German Ahnd, And (“woe, grief”), Danish ånde (“breath”), Swedish anda, ande (“spirit, breath, wind, ingenuity, intellect”), Icelandic andi (“spirit”), Albanian ëndë (“pleasure, delight”), Latin animus (“spirit, soul”). Related to onde.
and (plural ands)
- (Britain dialectal) Breath.
- (Britain dialectal) Sea smoke; steam fog.
From Middle English anden, from Old English andian (“to be envious or jealous, envy”) and Old Norse anda (“to breathe”); both from Proto-Germanic *anad?n? (“to breathe, sputter”). Cognate with German ahnden (“to avenge, punish”), Danish ånde (“to breathe”), Swedish andas (“to breathe”), Icelandic anda (“to breathe”). See above.