From Middle English don, from Old English dōn, from Proto-Germanic *dōną, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰeh₁- (“to put, place, do, make”).
The past tense form is from Middle English didde, dude, from Old English dyde, *diede, from Proto-Germanic *dedǭ/*dedē, from Proto-Indo-European *dʰédʰeh₁ti, an athematic e-reduplicated verb of the same root *dʰeh₁-.
The use of do in interrogative, negative, and, formerly, affirmative sentences, unusual in Germanic languages, is thought to be calqued from Brythonic.
do (third-person singular simple present does, present participle doing, simple past did, past participle done)
- (auxiliary) A syntactic marker
- (auxiliary) A syntactic marker in a question whose main verb is not another auxiliary verb or be.
- (auxiliary) A syntactic marker in negations with the indicative and imperative moods.
- (auxiliary) A syntactic marker for emphasis with the indicative, imperative, and subjunctive moods.
- (pro-verb) A syntactic marker that refers back to an earlier verb and allows the speaker to avoid repeating the verb; not generally used with auxiliaries such as "be".
- (African American Vernacular) Can refer back to "be".
- (transitive) To perform; to execute.
- (obsolete, transitive) To cause, make (someone) (do something).
- (intransitive, transitive) To suffice.
- (intransitive) To be reasonable or acceptable.
- (ditransitive) To have (as an effect).
- (intransitive) To fare, perform (well or poorly).
- (transitive, chiefly in questions) To have as one's job.
- To perform the tasks or actions associated with (something)
- To cook.
- (transitive) To travel in, to tour, to make a circuit of.
- (transitive) To treat in a certain way.
- (transitive) To work for or on, by way of caring for, looking after, preparing, cleaning, keeping in order, etc.
- (intransitive, obsolete) To act or behave in a certain manner; to conduct oneself.
- (transitive) (see also do time) To spend (time) in jail.
- (transitive) To impersonate or depict.
- (transitive, slang) To kill.
- (transitive, slang) To deal with for good and all; to finish up; to undo; to ruin; to do for.
- (informal) To punish for a misdemeanor.
- (transitive, slang) To have sex with. (See also do it)
- (transitive) To cheat or swindle.
- (transitive) To convert into a certain form; especially, to translate.
- (transitive, intransitive) To finish.
- (Britain, dated, intransitive) To work as a domestic servant (with for).
- (archaic, dialectal, transitive, auxiliary) Used to form the present progressive of verbs.
- (stock exchange) To cash or to advance money for, as a bill or note.
- (informal, transitive, ditransitive) To make or provide.
- (informal, transitive) To injure (one's own body part).
- (transitive) To take drugs.
- (transitive, in the form be doing [somewhere]) To exist with a purpose or for a reason.
do (plural dos)
- (colloquial) A party, celebration, social function.
- (informal) A hairdo.
- Something that can or should be done (usually in the phrase dos and don'ts).
- (obsolete) A deed; an act.
- (archaic) Ado; bustle; stir; to-do; A period of confusion or argument.
- (obsolete, Britain, slang) A cheat; a swindler.
- (obsolete, Britain, slang) An act of swindling; a fraud or deception.
From the name of musicologist Giovanni Battista Doni, who suggested replacing the original ut with an open syllable for ease of singing. First found in Italian.
do (plural dos)
- (music) A syllable used in solfège to represent the first and eighth tonic of a major scale.
Short for ditto.
do (not comparable)
- (rare) Abbreviation of ditto.